Pain in the eye

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CME

Pain in the eye is quite common in ophthalmology, an alarming symptom that is of serious concern to the individual. The pain can be of varying intensity. In some cases, the cause of the pain is clear and on the surface, such as when a foreign body enters the eye, as a result of trauma, and in others, a thorough diagnosis is required to determine the cause. When eye pain occurs, you should seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist.

Possible causes
Pain in the eye can be of varying intensity: from mild to moderate to severe. It is worth noting that when contacting a doctor – ophthalmologist under eye pain the patient may mean pain in the area around the eye, as well as pain in the eye socket. The symptom of eye pain may be due to the following causes:

Entry of a foreign body, with the person noting marked discomfort, inability to open the eye, and lacrimation. A foreign body can get in as a result of domestic activity, as well as professional activity.
Inflammatory diseases of the eye surface. Blepharitis is an inflammatory process in the eyelids, episcleritis, and conjunctivitis are inflammation of the layers covering the ocular surface. Each of these conditions has specific manifestations, but they all cause pain. In this case, examination through a special microscope is necessary. The examination allows you to separate one disease from another and prescribe an effective treatment.
Inflammatory diseases of the anatomical structures surrounding the eye. Dacryocystitis – inflammation of the lacrimal sac – is accompanied by redness and swelling of the skin, pain in the inner corner of the eye. Dacryoadenitis is an inflammatory process in the lacrimal gland, with an s-shaped change in the incision of the eye, the formation of an inflammatory focus over the eye on the outer side.
Traumatic damage to the eye. A fall, a blow, sports or other equipment or chemicals in the eye, household or workplace injuries cause damage to the eye surface and usually result in intensive pain.
Problems associated with contact lens wear. Wearing contact lenses is associated with the risk of developing diseases that may be accompanied by pain syndrome.
Electro-ophthalmia is a condition that occurs when the eye is exposed to ultraviolet radiation (being in a room with a quartz lamp on), characterized by pronounced pain sensations, redness of the eye, decreased visual acuity.
Keratitis is an inflammation of the cornea, which is accompanied by discomfort, foreign body sensation, photophobia, narrowing of the eye slit, decreased vision and a pronounced pain syndrome, which is explained by high sensitivity and abundant innervation of the cornea. There is another condition associated with corneal damage that causes sometimes excruciating, shooting pain – recurrent corneal erosion. The condition is often preceded by minimal trauma to the cornea in the past, such as a piece of paper or a child’s fingernail. Due to the rapid healing of the corneal surface (a few minutes or hours), the disease can be difficult to diagnose.
An attack of closed-angle glaucoma. Glaucoma is a disease in which there is a steady increase in intraocular pressure and damage to the ultrathin anatomical structures of the eye in this background. An attack of closed angle glaucoma is an acute condition accompanied by red eyes, unilateral pain, nausea, decreased vision, iridescent circles when looking at a light source, and, if untreated, optic nerve death and blindness.
Inflammatory processes in the optic nerve. Patients feel pain behind the eyeball, in the orbit, especially when moving the eye, and the visual field may become defective.
Inflammatory diseases of the vasculature – uveitis. Young patients are more often affected. The disease is accompanied by intense redness of the eye, decreased vision and characteristic intense pain at night or before dawn.
Unfortunately, such important social diseases as retinal detachment, open angle glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration are not accompanied by pain syndrome. This often leads to patients seeking help too late.

Diagnosing eye pain
When providing medical care to a patient with eye pain complaints, an ophthalmologist follows a diagnostic algorithm in order not to miss a possible reason.

The ophthalmologist interviews the patient, asks under what circumstances the pain occurred, what the patient can connect the occurrence of these symptoms with. Sometimes just talking is enough to determine the cause. The presentation of specific symptoms, such as iridescent circles when looking at a light source during a closed angle glaucoma attack, is an important clue for the physician.