Myopia – symptoms and treatment

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CME

How to take care of your eyesight and why myopia occurs
Myopia (or myopia) is a pathology of the refractive power of the eye in which the image is focused not on the retina, but in the plane in front of it. This is why a person sees small objects well up close, but the further away they are, the harder it is to see them. In the modern society myopia is observed in many people, according to the World Health Organization this disorder affects about 30% of the population. Myopia occurs most often between the ages of 7 and 18. The disease may remain stable, or progress.

Types of myopia
Ophthalmologists distinguish several forms of myopia:

Congenital (a form in which there are changes in the structures of the eyeball, there is a genetic predisposition);
Acquired (the form in which the disease occurs due to adverse external factors, its development can be suspended).
Specialists say that if myopia increases by 1 diopter or more per year, it indicates rapidly progressing myopia, which requires instrumental studies to determine the appropriate treatment tactics for the patient. If the disease is not detected in time, it can lead to rapid progression of myopia and sharp deterioration of vision. Treatment methods and methods depend on the degree of myopia. Doctors-ophthalmologists of the Federal Medical and Biological Center FMBA recommend seeing a doctor immediately at the first signs of the disorder to prevent its development.

Causes of myopia
The most common reason for the disease is heredity – if at least one parent suffers from myopia, the probability of myopia in a child increases by 30%. If both parents suddenly suffer from this illness – the chance that a child will myopia, increases to 50%.

Myopia may occur due to the following reasons:

Unfavorable conditions of visual load (hours of work at the computer in the wrong light, or improper seating when reading and writing);
Improperly selected glasses or lenses, it is necessary to use optics only as prescribed by an ophthalmologist;
Unbalanced diet, namely the lack of useful macro-and micronutrients to improve vision (zinc, magnesium, copper).
Symptoms of myopia
For a very long time, the disease can run without symptoms, often people do not notice its presence. Mostly myopia develops during the school years, when children and adolescents receive constant stress on the eyes.

The main symptoms of myopia are:

Pain and a feeling of “sand” in the eyes;
Constant tearing;
Blurred visibility of objects in the distance;
Feeling the need to squint in order to see an object far away;
Orbital pain in or behind the eye projection;
Rapid eye fatigue, even with minor visual activity.
If you suffer from similar symptoms, you should make an appointment to see an ophthalmologist. Timely diagnostics of the disease will prevent negative consequences for your health!

Diagnostics
Diagnosis of myopia begins with an examination in the office of an ophthalmologist. As part of the examination, examinations such as:

Visometry (a procedure to determine visual acuity using the Sivtsev table);
Ophthalmoscopy (a method of examination of the eyeball to detect retinal pathologies, various types of dystrophies);
Biomicroscopy (a detailed study of the structures of the eye, using a slit lamp);
Control of intraocular pressure.
When indicated an ultrasound eye examination is performed, determining the anteroposterior axis (eye length), B-scanning in order to visualize the internal structures of the eye.

The diagnostic results allow the doctor to determine the form and extent of the disease, prescribe the necessary treatment, including assessment of the need for laser photocoagulation of the retina, which poses a risk of retinal detachment.