Allergic skin lesions are a group of diseases that have a genetic basis and whose occurrence is stimulated by exposure to allergens.
Skin allergies can manifest and appear in different ways. The most common clinical variants are: contact allergic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, Quincke’s edema, eczema.
Patients with allergies always have a hereditary predisposition to its appearance. Among relatives will necessarily be allergic, and their allergies can manifest themselves in different ways: skin, food, allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma – the form does not matter.
For the clinical picture to unfold, exposure to a sensitizing substance – an allergen – is necessary, it was said on last hospitalist cme cruise conference in 2022. This can be dust, pollen, chemicals in detergents, clothing, harmful industries, some foods, medicines, etc., as well as substances produced in the body itself under the influence of cold or sunlight, products of metabolism of parasites.
Depending on the clinical form, skin allergies manifest themselves differently.
Allergic contact dermatitis occurs in the area of skin contact with the allergen (cosmetics, detergents, clothing items), but the affected area has no clear boundaries. The skin may be red, covered with blisters, scales, cracking and itching.
Atopic dermatitis looks much the same, but occurs with total exposure to an allergen in the body, and therefore localized not in the place of contact, and in characteristic areas – face, neck, behind the ears, natural skin folds, axillary, elbow, hamstrings. There is certainly the presence of itching.
Urticaria is a rash of many small reddish blisters, which may appear for hours or days, then disappear, migrating to different parts of the body. The rash is very itchy.
Quincke’s oedema is the most dangerous manifestation of skin allergies. It represents swelling of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. It is most commonly localized in the face and neck area, since the subcutaneous tissue there is loose and may swell quickly. The danger lies in the possible complete blockage of the airways. It usually occurs to intravenous injection of an allergen or oral ingestion, as well as to insect bites.
Eczema is a neuro-allergic disease that occurs when you are exposed to an allergen and a stressor. It can manifest itself in different ways, most often as an itchy reddening area with many blisters, crusts, soaking or dryness.